Free Access
Environ. Biosafety Res.
Volume 9, Number 3, July-September 2010
Page(s) 123 - 133
Section Opinion paper
Published online 05 April 2011
  • Bennett SJ, Virtue JG (2004) Salinity mitigation versus weed risks – can conflicts of interest in introducing new plants be resolved? Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44: 1141–1156 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Bergelson J (1994) Changes in fecundity do not predict invasiveness: a model study of transgenic plants. Ecology 75: 249–252 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Brookes G, Barfoot P (2008) Global impact of biotech crops: socio-economic and environmental effects, 1996–2006. AgBioForum 11: 21–38 [Google Scholar]
  • Caley P, Lonsdale WM, Pheloung PC (2006) Quantifying uncertainty in predictions of invasiveness, with emphasis on weed risk assessment. Biol. Invasions 8: 1595–1604 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Chapman PM, Fairbrother A, Brown D (1998) A critical evaluation of safety (uncertainty) factors for ecological risk assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17: 99–108 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Craig W, Tepfer M, Degrassi G, Ripandelli D (2008) An overview of general features of risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Euphytica 164: 853–880 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Cummings CL, Alexander HM (2002) Population ecology of wild sunflowers: effects of seed density and post-dispersal vertebrate seed predation on numbers of plants per patch and seed production. Oecologia 130: 274–280 [Google Scholar]
  • Dear BS, Ewing MA (2008) The search for new pasture plants to achieve more sustainable production systems in southern Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48: 387–396 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Economidis I, Cichocka D, Högel J eds (2010) A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg [Google Scholar]
  • Garcia-Alonso M, Jacobs E, Raybould A, Nickson TE, Sowig P, Willekens H, van der Kouwe P, Layton R, Amijee F, Fuentes AM, Tencalla F (2006) A tiered system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants to non-target organisms. Environ. Biosafety Res. 5: 57–65 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Halfhill MD, Sutherland JP, Moon HS, Poppy GM, Warwick SI, Weissing AK, Rufty TW, Raymer PL, Stewart CN (2005) Growth, productivity, and competitiveness of introgressed weedy Brassica rapa hybrids selected for the presence of Bt cry1Ac and gfp transgenes. Mol. Ecol. 14: 3177–3189 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hill RA, Sendashonga C (2003) General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: lessons from chemical risk assessment. Environ. Biosafety Res. 2: 81–88 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Johnson KL, Raybould AF, Hudson MD, Poppy GM (2007) How does scientific risk assessment fit within the wider risk analysis? Trends Plant Sci. 12: 1–5 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Keeler KH (1989) Can genetically engineered crops become weeds? Bio/technology 7: 1134–1137 [Google Scholar]
  • Kessler C, Economidis I eds (2001) EC-Sponsored Research on Safety of Genetically Modified Organisms. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg [Google Scholar]
  • Lawton JH (2007) Ecology, politics and policy. J. Appl. Ecol. 44: 465–474 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lubechenko J (1998) Entering the century of the environment: a new social contract for science. Science 279: 491–497 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Marvier M, McCreedy C, Regetz J, Kareiva P (2007) A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates. Science 316: 1475–1477 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Maule AJ, Caranta C, Boulton MI (2007) Sources of natural resistance to plant viruses: status and prospects. Mol. Plant Pathol. 8: 223–231 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McHughen A, Smyth S (2008) US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars. Plant Biotechnol. J. 6: 2–12 [Google Scholar]
  • National Research Council (2002) Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: the Scope and Adequacy of Regulation. National Academy Press, Washington [Google Scholar]
  • Nickson TE (2008) Planning environmental risk assessment for genetically modified crops. Plant Physiol. 147: 494–502 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Patton DE (1998) Environmental risk assessment: tasks and obligations. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 4: 657–670 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Pheloung PC, Williams PA, Halloy SR (1999) A weed risk assessment model for use as a biosecurity tool evaluating plant introductions. J. Environ. Manage. 57: 239–251 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Pimentel D, McNair S, Janecka J, Wightman J, Simmonds C, O’Connell C, Wong E, Russel L, Zern J, Aquino T, Tsomondo T (2001) Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 84: 1–20 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Popper KR (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson, London [Google Scholar]
  • Popper KR (1979) Objective Knowledge: an Evolutionary Approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A (2005) Assessing the environmental risks of transgenic volunteer weeds. In Gressel J, ed, Crop Ferality and Volunteerism, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 389–401 [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A (2006) Problem formulation and hypothesis testing for environmental risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Environ. Biosafety Res. 5: 119–125 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A (2007) Ecological versus ecotoxicological methods for assessing the environmental risks of transgenic crops. Plant Sci. 173: 589–602 [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A (2010) Reducing uncertainty in regulatory decision-making for transgenic crops: more ecological research or clearer environmental risk assessment? GM Crops 1: 25–31 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould AF, Cooper JI (2005) Tiered tests to assess the environmental risk of fitness changes in hybrids between transgenic crops and wild relatives: the example of virus resistant Brassica napus. Environ. Biosafety Res. 4: 125–140 [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould AF, Wilkinson MJ (2005) Assessing the environmental risks of gene flow from genetically modified crops to wild relatives. In Poppy GM, Wilkinson MJ, eds, Gene Flow from GM Plants, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 169–185 [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould AF, Moyes CL, Maskell LC, Mogg RJ, Warman EA, Warlaw JC, Elmes GW, Edwards M-L, Cooper JI, Clarke RT, Gray AJ (1999) Predicting the ecological impacts of transgenes for insect and virus resistance in natural and feral populations of Brassica species. In Ammann K, Jacot Y, Simonsen V, Kjellsson, eds, Methods of Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants, III. Ecological risks and prospects of transgenic plants, Bïrkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp 3–15 [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A, Stacey D, Vlachos D, Graser G, Li X, Joseph R (2007) Non-target organism risk assessment of MIR604 maize expressing mCry3A for control of corn rootworm. J. Appl. Entomol. 131: 391–399 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A, Tuttle A, Shore S, Stone T (2010) Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops with enzyme-based output traits. Transgenic Res. 19: 595–609 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Raybould A, Caron-Lormier G, Bohan DA (2011) The derivation and interpretation of hazard quotients to assess the ecological risks from the cultivation of insect-resistant transgenic crops. J. Agric. Food Chem., DOI: 10.1021/jf1042079 [Google Scholar]
  • Rogers ME, Craig AD, Munns RE, Colmer TD, Nichols PGH, Malcolm CV, Barrett-Lennard EG, Brown AJ, Semple WS, Evans PM, Cowley K, Hughes SJ, Snowball R, Bennett SJ, Sweeney GC, Dear BS, Ewing MA (2005) The potential for developing fodder plants for the salt-affected areas of southern and eastern Australia: an overview. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 45: 301–329 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Romeis J, Bartsch D, Bigler F, Candolfi MP, Gielkens MMC, Hartley SE, Hellmich RL, Huesing JE, Jepson PC, Layton R, Quemada H, Raybould A, Rose RI, Schiemann J, Sears MK, Shelton AM, Sweet J, Vaituzis Z, Wolt JD (2008) Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods. Nature Biotech. 26: 203–208 [Google Scholar]
  • Sanvido O, Romeis J, Bigler F (2007) Ecological impacts of genetically engineered crops: ten years of field research and commercial cultivation. Adv. Biochem. Engin. / Biotechnol. 107: 235–278 [Google Scholar]
  • Smith CS, Lonsdale WM, Fortune J (1999) When to ignore advice: invasion predictions and decision theory. Biol. Invasions 1: 89–96 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Squire GR, Brooks DR, Bohan DA, Champion GT, Daniels RE, Haughton AJ, Hawes C, Heard MS, Hill MO, May MJ, Osborne JL, Perry JN, Roy DB, Woiwood IP, Firbank LG (2003) On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 358: 1779–1799 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Stone LM, Byrne M, Virtue JG (2008) An environmental weed risk assessment model for Australian forage improvement programs. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48: 568–574 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Suter GW (1990) Endpoints for regional ecological risk assessments. Environ. Manage. 14: 9–23 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Suter GW (1996) Abuse of hypothesis testing statistics in ecological risk assessment. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 2: 331–347 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Sutherland J, Poppy G (2005) Risk assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis in wild Brassica rapa: a field simulation of introgressed transgenes. J. Plant Interact. 1: 31–38 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Touart LW, Maciorowski AF (1997) Information needs for pesticide registration in the United States. Ecol. Appl. 7: 1086–1093 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Warwick SI, Stewart CN (2005) Crops come from wild plants – how domestication, transgenes and linkage together shape ferality. In Gressel J, ed, Crop Ferality and Volunteerism, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 9–30 [Google Scholar]
  • Warwick SI, Beckie HJ, Hall LM (2009) Gene flow, invasiveness, and ecological impact of genetically modified crops. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1168: 72–99 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Wilkinson M, Tepfer M (2009) Fitness and beyond: preparing for the arrival of GM crops with ecologically important novel characters. Environ. Biosafety Res. 8: 1–14 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wolt J, Keese P, Raybould A, Fitzpatrick JW, Burachik M, Gray A, Olin SS, Schiemann J, Sears M, Wu F (2010) Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants. Transgenic Res. 19: 425–436 [Google Scholar]