Free Access
Issue
Environ. Biosafety Res.
Volume 2, Number 4, October-December 2003
Page(s) 247 - 261
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ebr:2003015
Published online 15 January 2004
  • Biddinger DJ, Felland CM, Hull LA (1994) Parasitism of tufted apple bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in conventional insecticide and pheromone-treated Pennsylvania apple orchards. Environ. Entomol. 23: 1568–1579
  • Buchmann SL, Nabhan GP (1996) The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press, Washington DC
  • Cardina J, Regnier E, Harrison K (1991) Long-term tillage effects on seed banks in three Ohio USA soils. Weed Sci. 39: 186–194
  • Engelhardt GP (1946) The North American Clear-wing Moths of the Family Aegeriidae. Bulletin 190. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum. Washington DC
  • Ebner JA (1970) The butterflies of Wisconsin. Board of Trustees, Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI
  • Economic Research Service – USDA (2002) http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Corn/background.htm;
  • Foreign Agriculture Service – USDA (2002) http://www.fas.usda.gov/grain/circular/2002/03-02/cgra_tbl.pdf;
  • Forbes WTM (1969) Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Entomological Reprint Specialists. Lansing, MI
  • Glenn S, Phillips WH, Kalnay P (1997) Long-term control of perennial broadleaf weeds and triazine-resistant common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) in no-till corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol. 11: 436–440
  • Hardwick DF (1996) A monograph to the North American Heliothentinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ottawa
  • Hoffmann MP, Walker DL, Shelton AM (1995) Biology of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared on Ostriniae nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and survey for additional hosts. Entomophaga 40: 387–402 [CrossRef]
  • Howe WH (1975) The Butterflies of North America. Garden City, New York
  • Johnson KS, Scriber JM, Nitao JK, Smitley DR (1995) Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurtstaki to three nontarget Lepidoptera in field studies. Environ. Ent. 24: 288–297
  • Julien MH, Griffiths MW (1998) Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds/compiled and edited by Oxon. 4th edn. CABI Publishers, New York
  • Klots AB (1979) A Field Guide to the Butterflies: North America, east of the Great Plains. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA
  • National Agricultural Statistics Service – USDA (2000) Crop Production: 1999 Summary
  • NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application] (2001) Version 1.6. Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. Available: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Accessed: October 3, 2002)
  • Opler PA (1999) Field guide to western butterflies. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MI
  • Opler PA, Krizek GO (1984) Butterflies East of the Great Plains: an illustrated natural history. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD
  • Orr DB, Garcia-Salazar C, Landis DA (2000) Trichogramma nontarget impacts: A method for biological control risk assessment. In Follet, Duan, eds, Nontarget effects of biological control. Kluwer Acad. Publ. pp 111–126
  • Padgitt M, Newton D, Penn R, Sandretto C (2001) Production Practices for Major Crops in USA Agriculture, 1990-1997. Economic Research Service – USDA
  • Pavuk DM, Stinner BR (1991) New lepidoptera-parasitoid associations in weedy corn plantings: A potential alternate host for Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) parasitoids. The Great Lakes Entomologist 24: 219–223
  • Peacock JW, Schweitzer DF, Carter JL, Dubois NR (1998) Laboratory assessment of the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on native lepidoptera. Environ. Entomol. 27: 450–457
  • Pyle RM (1992) The Audubon Society field guide to North American butterflies. New York
  • Richard J, Hietzman JE (1987) Butterflies and moths of Missouri. Missouri Dept. of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO
  • SAS Institute (1996) SAS/STAT user's guide, release 6.12 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC
  • Schweizer EE, Westra P, Lydecker DW (1998) Seedbank and emerged annual weed populations in cornfields (Zea mays) in Colorado. Weed Technol. 12: 243–248
  • Scott JA (1986) The butterflies of North America: A natural history and field guide. Stanford University, Stanford, CA
  • Shull EM (1987) Butterflies of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Bloomington, IN
  • Tietz HM (1972) North American Lepidoptera. (Vols. 1 and 2). Allyn Museum. Sarasota, FL
  • U.S. Grains Council (2002) http://www.grains.org/grains/corn.html;
  • Wax LM, Fwacett RS, Isely D (1981) Weeds of the North Central States, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL
  • Webster TM, Cobble HD (1997) Changes in the weed species composition of the southern United States: 1974 to 1995. Weed Technol. 11: 308–318
  • Western D (1989) Conservation without parks: Wildlife in the rural landscape. In Western D, Pearl M, eds, Conservation for the twenty-first century. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 158–165
  • Wright MG, Hoffmann MP, Kuhar TP, Pitcher SA, Gardner J, Assessing risks of biological control introductions: a probabilistic risk-assessment approach. (unpublished)
  • Zhang B (1994) Index of economically important Lepidoptera. CAB International, Wallingford http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/AG271/corn_sorghum/granulate_cutworm.html http://www.ext.nodak.edu/extpubs/plantsci/rowcrops/eb25w-6a.htm http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/lepid/BFLYUSA/bflyusa.htm;