Open Access
Issue
Environ. Biosafety Res.
Volume 6, Number 1-2, January-June 2007
Thematic Issue on Horizontal Gene Transfer
Page(s) 149 - 160
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ebr:2007029
Published online 26 October 2007
  • Bensasson D, Boore JL, Nielsen KM (2004) Genes without frontiers. Heredity 92: 483–489 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chambers PA, Duggan PS, Heritage J, Forbes MJ (2002) The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49: 161–164 [Google Scholar]
  • Chowdhury EH, Mikami O, Nakajima Y, Hino A, Kuribara H, Suga K, Hanazumi M, Yomemochi C (2003a) Detection of genetically modified maize DNA fragments in the intestinal contents of pigs fed StarLinkTMCBH351. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 45: 95–96 [Google Scholar]
  • Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajama Y (2003b) Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 2546–2551 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chowdhury EH, Mikami O, Murata H, Sultana P, Shimada N, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamamoto S, Miyazaki S, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y (2004) Fate of intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11. J. Food Protection 67: 365–370 [Google Scholar]
  • Deaville ER, Maddison BC (2005) Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments in the blood, tissues, and digesta of broilers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 10268–10275 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Doerfler W (2000) Foreign DNA in mammalian systems. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany [Google Scholar]
  • Duggan PS, Chambers PA, Heritage J, Forbes JM (2000) Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 191: 71–77 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Duggan PS, Chambers PA, Heritage J, Forbes MJ (2003) Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 89: 159–166 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • EFSA - European Food Safety Authority (2004) Opinion of the scientific panel on genetically modified organisms on the use of antibiotic resistance genes as marker genes in genetically modified plants. EFSA J. 48: 1–18 [Google Scholar]
  • Einspanier R, Klotz A, Kraft J, Aulrich K, Poser R, Schwägele F, Jahreis G, Flachowsky G (2001) The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals: a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212: 129–134 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Forsman A, Ushameckis D, Bindra A, Yun Z, Blomberg J (2003) Uptake of amplifiable fragments of retrotransposon DNA from the human alimentary tract. Mol. Gen. Genomics 270: 362–368 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hohlweg U, Doerfler W (2001) On the fate of plant or other foreign genes upon the uptake in food or after intramuscular injection in mice. Mol. Gen. Genomics 265: 225–233 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Jennings JC, Albee LD, Kolwyck DC, Surber JB, Taylor ML, Hartnell GF, Lirette RP, Glenn KC (2002) Attempts to detect transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein in muscle from broilers fed YieldGard corn borer corn. Poultry Sci. 82: 371–380 [Google Scholar]
  • Kharazmi M, Sczesny S, Blaut M, Hammes WP, Hertel C (2003) Marker rescue studies on the transfer of recombinant DNA to Streptococcus gordonii in vitro, in foods and gnotobiotic rats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 6121–6127 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Klotz A, Mayer J, Einspanier R (2002) Degradation and possible carry over of feed DNA monitored in pigs and poultry. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 214: 271–275 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1994) Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment. Microbiol. Rev. 58: 563–602 [Google Scholar]
  • Martín-Orúe SM, O'Donnell AG, Ariño J, Netherwood T, Gilbert HJ, Mathers JC (2002) Degradation of transgenic DNA from genetically modified soya and maize in human intestinal simulation. Br. J. Nutr. 87: 533–542 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Maturin L, Curtiss R (1977) Degradation of DNA by nucleases in the intestinal tract of rats. Science 196: 216–218 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mercer DK, Melville CM, Scott KP, Flint HJ (1999a) Natural genetic transformation in the rumen bacterium Streptococcus bovis JB1. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 179: 485–490 [Google Scholar]
  • Mercer DK, Scott KP, Bruce-Johnson WA, Glover AL, Flint HJ (1999b) Fate of free DNA and transformation of the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii DL1 by plasmid DNA in human saliva. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 6–10 [Google Scholar]
  • Mercer DK, Scott KP, Melville CM, Glover LA, Flint HJ (2001) Transformation of an oral bacterium via chromosomal integration of free DNA in the presence of human saliva. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 200: 163–167 [Google Scholar]
  • Netherwood T, Bowden R, Harrison P, O'Donnell AG, Parker DS, Gilbert HJ (1999) Gene transfer in the gastrointetinal tract. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 5139–5141 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Netherwood T, Martín-Orúe SM, O'Donnell AG, Gockling S, Graham J, Mathers JC, Gilbert HJ (2004) Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract. Nat. Biotechnol. 22: 204–209 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nielsen KM, Daffonchio D (2007) Unintended horizontal transfer of recombinant DNA. In Traavik T, Lim LC, eds, Biosafety first: holistic approaches to risk and uncertainty in genetic engineering and genetically modified organisms, Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, Norway, pp 221–237 [Google Scholar]
  • Nielsen KM, Townsend JP (2004) Monitoring and modeling horizontal gene transfer. Nat. Biotechnol. 22: 1110–1114 [Google Scholar]
  • Nielsen KM, Bones AM, van Elsas JD (1997) Induced natural transformation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in soil microcosms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 3972–77 [Google Scholar]
  • Nielsen KM, Smalla K, van Elsas JD (2000) Natural transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 with cell lysates of Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Burkholderia cepacia in soil microcosms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 206–212 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nielsen KM, Berdal KG, Kruse H, Sundsfjord A, Mikalsen A, Yazdankhah S, Nes I (2005) An assessment of potential long-term health effects caused by antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically modified organisms based on antibiotic usage and resistance patterns in Norway, VKM-Report, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, Oslo, Norway [Google Scholar]
  • Nordgård L, Traavik T, Nielsen KM (2005) Nucleic acid isolation from ecological samples – vertebrate gut flora. In Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, Vol. 224, pp 38–48 [Google Scholar]
  • O'Hara AM, Shanahan F (2006) The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO Rep. 7: 688–693 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Palka-Santini M, Schwarz-Herzke B, Hösel M, Renz D, Auerochs S, Brondke H, Doerfler W (2003) The gastrointestinal tract as a portal of entry for foreign macromolecules: fate of DNA and proteins. Mol. Gen. Genomics. 270: 201–215 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Palmen R, Hellingwerf KJ (1997) Uptake and processing of DNA by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: A review. Gene 192: 179–90 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Pettersen AK, Primicero R, Bøhn T, Nielsen KM (2005) Modeling suggest frequency estimates are not informative for predicting the long-term effect of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. Environ. Biosafety Res. 4: 222–233 [Google Scholar]
  • Ray JL, Nielsen KM (2005) Experimental methods for assaying natural transformation and inferring horizontal gene transfer. In Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, Vol. 224, pp 491–520 [Google Scholar]
  • Schubbert T, Lettmann C, Doerfler W (1994) Ingested foreign DNA (phage M13) DNA survives transiently in the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream of mice. Mol. Gen. Genet. 242: 495–504 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Schubbert R, Renz D, Schmitz B, Doerfler W (1997) Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leucocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 961–966 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Schubbert R, Hohlweg U, Renz D, Doerfler W (1998) On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission to the fetus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 259: 569–576 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sharma R, Alexander TW, John SJ, Forster RJ, McAllister TA (2004) Relative stability of transgene DNA fragments from GM rapeseed in mixed ruminal cultures. Br. J. Nutr. 91: 673–681 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sharma R, Damgaard D, Alexander TW, Dugan MER, Aalhus JL, Stanford K, McAllister TA (2006) Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready Canola Meal. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 1699–1709 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sun D, Zhang Y, Mei Y, Jiang H, Xie Z, Liu Z, Chen X, Shen P (2006) Escherichia coli is naturally transformable in a novel transformation system. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 256: 249–255 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Thomas CM, Nielsen KM (2005) Mechanisms and barriers to horizontal gene transfer between bacteria. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3: 711–721 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Tony MA, Butschke A, Broll H, Grohmann L, Zagon J, Halle I, Dänike, Schauzu M, Hafez HM, Flachowsky G (2003) Safety assessment of Bt176 maize in broiler nutrition: degradation of maize-DNA and its metabolic fate. Arch. Tierernahr. 57: 235–52 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wilcks A, Hoek AHAM, Joosten RG, Jacobsen BBL, Aarts HJM (2004) Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42: 493–502 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]