Environ. Biosafety Res.
Volume 5, Number 3, July-September 2006
|Page(s)||169 - 173|
|Published online||28 March 2007|
Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan
National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368 grains.cm-2.day-1, with the average value at 0.18 grains.cm-2.day-1, indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.
Key words: gene flow / soybean / glyphosate-tolerant / out-crossing / pollen
© ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2007