Free Access
Issue
Environ. Biosafety Res.
Volume 4, Number 1, January-March 2005
Page(s) 29 - 43
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ebr:2005009
Published online 15 August 2005
  • Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment (2004) Advice on scientific issues concerning the proposed regime for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops. p 6. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/acre/advice/pdf/acre_advice-56.pdf
  • Ammann K, Jacot Y, Al Mazyad RP (2001) Safety of genetically engineered plants: an ecological risk assessment of vertical gene flow. In Custers R, ed, Safety of Genetically Engineered Crops. Zwijnaarde, Belgium, Flanders Interuniversity, Institute for Biotechnology, pp 60–87
  • Bartsch D, Brand U, Morak C, Pohl-Orf M, Schuphan I, Ellstrand NC (2001) Biosafety of hybrids between transgenic virus-resistant sugar beet and Swiss chard. Ecol. Appl. 11: 142–147 [CrossRef]
  • Bartsch D, Cuguen J, Biancardi E, Sweet J (2003) Environmental implications of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet – current status and future research needs. Environ. Biosafety Res. 2: 105–115 [EDP Sciences] [PubMed]
  • Beckie HJ, Hall LM, Warwick SI (2001) Impact of herbicide-resistant crops as weeds in Canada. Proceedings of British Crop Protection Conference: Weeds, pp 135–142
  • Boudry P, Mörchen M, Saumitou-Laprade P, Vernet P, Van Dijk H (1993) The origin and evolution of weed beets: consequences for the breeding and release of herbicide resistant transgenic sugar beets. Theor. Appl. Genet. 87: 471–478 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Brule-Babel AL, Van Acker RC, Friesen LF (2003) Issues related to release of GM wheat: gene flow and selection. Proceedings of the 2002 Manitoba Agronomists Conference, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
  • Conner AJ, Glare TR, Nap JP (2003) The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment. Plant J. 33: 19–46 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • de Vries AP (1974) Some aspects of cross pollination in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seed set on male sterile plants as influenced by distance from the pollen source. Pollinator: Male sterile ratio and width of the male sterile strip. Euphytica 23: 601–622 [CrossRef]
  • de Vries AP, Meijden VD, Brandenburg WA (1992) Botanical files – a study of the real chances for spontaneous gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora of the Netherlands. Gorteria, Supplement 1, p 100
  • DEFRA (2001) Risk assessment for release and marketing of GMOs in the European Union. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/background/risk
  • Department of Agriculture and Food (2004) Fact sheet on Irish agriculture: May 2004, p 2
  • Devos Y, Reheul D, de Schrijver A, Cors F, Moens W (2004) Management of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape in Europe: a case study on minimizing vertical gene flow. Environ. Biosafety Res. 3: 135–148 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed]
  • Eastham K, Sweet J (2002) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. Environmental Issue Report No. 28, p 75
  • Eijlander R, Stiekeman WJ (1994) Biological containment of potato (Solanum tuberosum): Outcrossing to the related wild species black nightshade (S. nigrum) and bittersweet (S. dulcamara). Sex. Plant R. 7: 29–40
  • European Commission (2003) Guidelines for the development of national strategies and best practices to ensure the co-existence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming, Commission Recommendation 2003/556/EC. http://europa.eu.int/comm/agriculture/publi/reports/coexistence2/index_en.htm
  • Frietema De Vries FT (1996) Cultivated plants and the wild flora. Effect analysis by dispersal codes. Rijksherbarium, Leiden
  • Gould FW (1968) Grass Systematics. New York, McGraw Hill, p 382
  • Hancock JF (2003) A framework for assessing the risk of transgenic crops. BioSci. 53: 512–519 [CrossRef]
  • Hauser TP, Bjorn GK, Magnussen L, Shim SI (2003a) Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots: a life history. European Science Foundation, Assessment of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Organisms: Introgression from genetically modified plants to wild relatives and its consequences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, January 21–24
  • Hauser TP, Damgaard C, Jorgensen RB (2003b) Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa (Brassicaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 90: 571–578 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hucl P (1996) Out-crossing rates for 10 Canadian spring wheat cultivars. Can. J. Plant Sci. 76: 423–427
  • Levin DA, Kerster HW (1974) Gene flow in seed plants. Evol. Biol. 7: 139–200
  • Loureiro I, Escorial MC, Garcia-Baudin JM, Chueca MC (2003) Pollen dispersal and potential hybridisation between wheat cultivars. In Boelt B, ed, 1st European Conference on Co-existence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Crops, Research Centre Flakkebjerg, pp 85–88
  • McPartlan H, Dale PJ (1994) The transfer of introduced genes from field grown transgenic potatoes to non-transgenic potatoes and related Solanaceous species. Transgenic Res. 3: 216–225 [CrossRef]
  • Meade C, Mullins E (2005) GM crop cultivation in Ireland: Ecological and Economic considerations. Proc. R. Ir. Acad.: Biol. Environ. 105B: 33–52 [CrossRef]
  • Newstrom LE, Armstrong T, Robertson AW, Lee WG, Heenan PB, Peltzer D, Wilton AD, FitzJohn RG, Breitwieser I, Glenny D (2003) Environmental Risks to the New Zealand Flora from Transgenic Crops: the role of gene flow. Landcare Research, Lincoln, p 76. www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biodiversity/geneflow
  • Pohl-Orf M, Morak C, Wehres U, Saeglitz C, Drießen S, Lehnen M, Hesse P, Mücher T, von Soosten C, Schuphan I, Bartsch D (2000) The environmental impact of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet: An ecological comparison of transgenic and natural virus tolerance genes. In Fairbairn C, Scoles G, McHughen A, eds, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on The Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms, July 2000, Saskatoon, Canada, pp 51–55
  • Preston CD, Pearman DA, Dines TD (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford, Oxford University Press
  • Programme UNE (2003) The UNEP-GEF project on the implementation of the national biosafety framework of Bulgaria. United Nations Environmental Programme, Division of Global Environment Facility Coordination. http://www.unep.ch/biosafety/Implementation/countries/Bulgariaoperationalreport%202003_12final.pdf
  • Ramsay G, Thompson C, Squire G (2003) Quantifying landscape-scale gene flow in oilseed rape. Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee and DEFRA, Project RG0216. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/research/pdf/epg_ rg0216.pdf
  • Raybould AF, Gray AJ (1993) Genetically modified crops and hybridisation with wild relatives: A UK perspective. J. Appl. Ecol. 30: 199–219 [CrossRef]
  • Ritala A, Nuutila AM, Aikasalo R, Kauppinen V, Tammisola J (2002) Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic barley. Crop Sci. 42: 278–285 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Romano A, Plas LHW, Witholt B, Eggink G, Mooibroek H (2005) Expression of poly-3-(R)-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase and acyl-CoA-transacylase in plastids of transgenic potato leads to the synthesis of a hydrophobic polymer, presumably medium-chain-length PHAs. Planta 220: 455–464 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Salisbury P (2002) Pollen movement in canola (Brassica napus) and outcrossing between B. napus crops. Environmental Safety Report, University of Melbourne, p 22
  • Sears MK, Stanley-Horn DE (2000) Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations. In Fairbairn C, Scoles G, McHughen A, eds, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on The Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms, July 2000, Saskatoon, Canada
  • Stace CA (1984) Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles, Academic Press, London, p 626
  • Sweet J, Simpson E, Law JR, Lutman P, Berry K, Payne R, Champion G, May M, Walker K, Wightman P, Lainsbury M (2004) Botanical and rotational implications of genetically modified herbicide tolerance in winter oilseed rape and sugar beet (BRIGHT Project). HGCA Project Report: p 265
  • Thanavala Y, Mahoney M, Pal S, Scott A, Richter L, Natarajan N, Goodwin P, Arntzen CJ, Mason HS (2005) Immunogenicity in humans of an edible vaccine for hepatitis B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102: 3378–3382 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Tolstrup K, Andersen SB, Boelt B, Buus M, Gylling M, Holm PB, Kjellsson G, Pedersen S, Ostergard H, Mikkelsen SA (2003) Report from the Danish Working Group on the Co-existence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic crops. DIAS Report Plant Production No. 94, p 275
  • Treu R, Emberlin J (2000) Pollen dispersal in the crops Maize (Zea mays), Oil seed rape (Brassica napus ssp oleifera), Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum). A report for the Soil Association, National Pollen Research Unit, University College Worcester, p 54
  • Tynan JL, Williams MK, Conner AJC (1990) Low frequency of pollen dispersal from a field trial of transgenic potatoes. J. Genet. Breed. 44: 303–306
  • USDA (2002) Fact Sheet: Environmental Considerations for Bio-Engineered Crops in U.S. Food Aid Donations, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, Washington DC. http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/fs/15605.htm
  • Van Acker RC, Brûlé-Babel AL, Friesen LF, Entz MH (2003) GM/non-GM wheat co-existence in Canada: Roundup Ready® wheat as a case study. In Boelt B, ed, 1st European Conference on Co-existence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Crops, Research Centre Flakkebjerg, pp 60–71
  • Van Raamsdonk LWD, Schouten HJ (1997) Gene flow and establishment of transgenes in natural plant populations. Acta Bot. Neerl. 46: 69–84
  • Waines JG, Hegde SG (2003) Intraspecific gene flow in bread wheat as affected by reproductive biology and pollination ecology of wheat flowers. Crop Sci. 43: 451–463 [CrossRef]
  • Webb DA, Parnell JAN, Doogue D, Dundalk (1996) An Irish Flora. Dundalk, Dún Dealgan Press
  • Wilkinson MJ, Sweet J, Poppy GM (2003) Risk assessment of GM plants: avoiding gridlock? Trends Plant Sci. 8: 208–212 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.